Building scientific basis for the approach to reform education and research to enlighten modern Islamic thought and to initiate adopting scientific and critical thinking in the society. This we see possible through the revival of Islamic kalam which can help us built a basis for an scientific vision to Nature, the individual and to the society.
It is time for Muslims to develop the world and their society to the level of utilizing the proper means and identify the correct approach to make their contemporary share in developing the whole world. Muslims has great wealth of intellectual contributions including the sharp vision of Nature and the Creation in the legacy of Kalam. This can for basis for new development and reform of Islamic thought.
Cosmokalam aims at inspiring research works and discussions in Daqiq al-Kalam: the Islamic approach to natural philosophy. Many questions and problems in natural philosophy can be discussed from an Islamic perspective and many fruitful solutions can be reached.
Daqiq al-Kalam in a new approach to deal with questions of natural philosophy. It is based on the original views laid out by the early Mutakallimun (practitioners of Kalam/discourse) who tried to formalize the basis of Islamic thought on rational basis.
Principles of Kalam and Modern Physics
Time has passed since the early Mutakallimun wrote their manuscripts and concluded their discussions. Since then much water passed under the bridges. Now in this age we find that the basis laid by Mutakallimun are in agreement with the basis of modern physics. This incidence provokes us to look seriously at their works, develop it further and utilize it to construct basis for the reformation of Islamic thought.
The conformity of the basis of Daqiq al-Kalam with discoveries of modern natural sciences allows us to seek constructing modern Islamic thought upon these bases. Such a work cannot be done by single person, therefore the collaboration of many intellectuals who agree on adopting such bases is necessary for the success of this project.
The Two Main Schools of Kalam
The mutakallimūn formed two main schools, the Muʽtazilis who was the first to be formed, and the Ash’aris Yet a third school was formed in Samarqand and Khurāsan (present day Afghanistan) at the time when the Ash'ari school was forming in Iraq. That school, called the Maturidi, shared much views of the Ash'aris but did not gain much publicity as the Asharis did. Prominent leaders of the Muʽtazilis were Wāṣil Ibn ʽAtta’ (d. 748), Amr Ibn ʽUbaed (d. 762), Abu al- Huthayl al-Allāf (d. 840), Ibrīāhim al-Naẓẓām (d. 835), and al-Jāḥiẓ (d. 868 A.D). Most of the original contributions of the leaders of kalām have been lost, but some of their main ideas and arguments were preserved through the writings of their students or opponents. Valuable monographs and critiques have, however, been preserved from some prominent leaders of Muʽtazilisim who worked in a later period. Most prominent among these was Abu al-Hussein al-Khayyāt (d.~ 912) and Abu al-Kāsim al-Balkhi (sometimes called al-Kabi) (d. 931), Abu Ali al-Jeba’īe (d.915) and his Son Abu Hāshim al-Jubba’īe (d.933). Some of the original works of these prominent Muʽtazilis were preserved through the monographs written by their students and followers like Abū Rashīd al-Naysāburi (d. 1048) and Abdul-Jabbār al-Hamadāni (d.1024) who wrote an extensive monograph about Muʽtazilis that preserved much of their original thoughts and his student Ahmed Ibn Mattaweyh (d. 1059) who wrote a book preserving a good deal of the opinions of early Muʽtazilis on the subjects of Daqīq al- Kalām.
The need to reform the Kalam
Old kalam went too much in considering topics concerning divinity and problems related to the Qur'an and faith (Jaleel al-kalam) this approach harmed kalam and urged the ruling institutions to ban Kalam discussions and forums. This happened during the reign of Mutawakil (847-861) and the reign of al-Qader Billah (991-1031). The last ban was so severe that caused the loss of most of the original heritage of Kalam.
We should learn from that age-old experience and realize that getting into discussion about matters which are beyond our mental ability is something problematic and is surely is worthless. This urges us to rectify the Kalam reform it and get it into a productive approach that allows it to take honorable role in contemporary thoughts.
A Bit of History
Historically, one can say that there are two basic motivations for the emergence of kalām, the first was internal; different opinions expressed by Muslim theologians in respect to the fate of the sinner initiated an argument that proceeded to develop into a whole tradition of thought. For example some theologians suggested that a Muslim sinner is a non-believer and should be considered kāfer (one who negates Islamic belief). Other theologians suggested that he should be considered only ‘corrupt’ (fāsiq), a technical middle position which lay between the status of kāfer and believer. The second reason for kalām's emergence the reaction of Muslims to new ideas and thoughts they faced when they came into contact with new nations and civilizations, particularly the classical Mediterranean and Indic. This contact, at a time when Muslims were the dominating power in the world, created a ‘dialogue between civilizations’ rather than a ‘clash of civilizations’.
A Computer-Aided Analysis of Kalām Structure
Cosmokalam platform will serve the analysis of the discourse according to the principles of the new kalām in order to provide an aid in formulating the structural analysis of problems addressed by the new kalām. The platform will run with advanced data mining, natural language processing, invented correlation packages and codes which is based on certain metrication procedure as provided by Altaie in his new approach to kalām.
The platform will serve researchers in wide spectrum of research fields in Islamic thought and natural philosophy. This will be a novel achievement that could be presented as a new technical development in Islamic thought heading toward utilizing the latest data science and artificial intelligence applications.
The platform will be available to researchers interested in pursuing studies in the natural and social sciences according to the kalām approach. Upon this interest the platform provides the users with interactive gates through, which allow users to reach resources, analyze structures, and construct models for their problems. The platform will be continuously updated according to prescribed development phases and according to the feedbacks obtained through the user’s interactive gates.