Daqīq al-kalām investigated some of the basic concepts that are the subjects of contemporary physics, such as space, time, matter, motion, force, speed, heat, color, smells, and the like. So it is quite legitimate to revisit this discipline seeking a common understanding, not necessarily with physics as such but perhaps with the philosophy which surrounds these now scientific concepts. This approach is supported by the fact that the resources of kalām are quite different from those of classical natural philosophy, including the philosophy of the Greeks.
Mutakallimūn considered the Qur'ān to be the prime source for their knowledge about the world, and accordingly they founded their discipline a way as to understand the world according to the stipulations of the Qur’ān. This is the main reason why we find that some concepts of kalām are different in their meanings and implications from their apparent counterparts in either Greek or Indian philosophy. For example: the Qur'an stipulates that the world was created by God at some finite time in the past; accordingly the mutakallimūn projected this demand into a whole theory of creation of the world and generated their own understanding of substances (jawāhir: single jawhar) and accidents (aʽrāḍ: single ʽaraḍ) as part of a general principle of discreteness in order to serve the notion of creation. On the other hand, for God to be free in designing the world according to His own unpredictable will, and in order that He exert full control over the world, the world had to be thought of as being composed of a series of unstable and ever-changing events. This requirement generated the concept of ever-changing accidents which was expressed by the principle of continued re-creation. Accordingly, this led theologians to consider the results of the action of the laws of nature (fire burning cotton, for instance) as being undetermined, so that the mutakallimūn were able to develop a new concept of causality.
Altaie has designated five basic principles of Daqiq al-Kalam. These constitute almost a consensus among the Mutakallimun.
These principles are:
There are a number of problems in Daqiq al-Kalam which are in need for research and more perfections. Among these are the followings:
The Problem of Motion
Mutakallimun Considered motion to be performed in discrete steps. This visualization is in need for more detailed consideration to see if this concept can lead to the quantization of spacetime. Al-Nazzam notion of Tafra is worth considering in this context.
The Problem of Re-Creation
This is a very novel concept to understand and resolve many problems in Quantum Physics. However, the concept is in further need to be developed as to give clearer picture of the way such a re-creation takes place. In addition to this a complete mathematical formulation is needed to develop the concept into quantitative calculations.
Here are some articles in Daqiq Al-Kalam that you may download.