Jalil al-Kalam was the main bulk of the science of Kalam in which basic questions of Islamic creed were discussed. These discussions tried to rationalize the basics of Islamic creed and gradually slipped into some controversial questions like the questions related to the meanings of Divine attributes, the question of the temporality of the Qur'an and so forth. Mutakallimun got subdivided into several factions and lots of debates were held between the Mutakallimun of different sects. The ruling system during the time of Caliph al-Ma'mun (reign 813-833) and his son al-Mu'tasim (reign 833-842) interfered resulting in oppressing certain sects in favor of others.
The legacy of Jalil al-Kalam was considered worthless after the atrocities suffered by the conflicting parties. A new Jalil al-Kalm need to be built in the light of the Qur'an and the authentic correct narrations of the Prophet. We take the stated attributes of Allah as told by the Qur'an and consider such attributes given by their effective meanings and not to be taken literally.
Jalil al-Kalam asserts the Uniqueness of the Creator Allah and stresses Tawhid in every aspect of the Aqeeda.
Historically Usul al-Fiqh were based on Kalam, but since the new Kalam will take care of the scientific methodology in deducing and verifying the basis, thus we feel that Daqiq al-Kalam will play bigger role in formulating the new Jalil al-Kalam. Natural Sciences, especially modern physics, has provided us with theoretical and practical example that help us figure out the fate and destiny of the world rationally. Now we can have better vision of the cosmological arguments presented in the Qur'an.
There are some profound basis for the Islamic Aqida, these are almost what all Muslims would agree upon. I can designate these as:
The Creator: Is the central point in every aspect of the world. He is the Sustainer of the world (qayyum) through Fitrah and Sunnah. The Fitrah is the inherent nature of things and the Sunnah is the law by which the Fitrah behave.
Justice: The Creator is just and fair for every constituent of the world. This is the reason that we see such accuracy in the creation of the world and designating its properties.
Tawhid: is the goal of all the creation and we see it through the created world in every aspect. Tawhid requires to acknowledge the creator and the meaning of his attributes.
Resurrection: is an important pillar of Islamic faith by which we acknowledge afterlife in one form or another. Examples (amthal) given in the Qur'an are guidelines for us to contemplate about the afterlife.
Ihsan: this is a complementary favor that Allah has embodied in the creation and would like to see it manifesting in the good deeds of his servants. Ihsan in some aspect is closely related to compassion and mercy.
These five pillars of Jalil al-Kalam constitute the reference for the analysis of all aspects of Aqidah and by which we can assess the value of thought and evaluate actions.
Problem 1: Divine Action and the Role of the Laws of Nature
Many people including some prominent scientists are confused about the role of Divine Action in the world. They say if the laws of nature or laws of physics can provide all the effects happening in the world, then what a role for the Creator? In fact some scientist cannot see the difference between the Laws of Nature and the Laws of Physics. Read the chapter on this subject shown on the right and listen to the talk.
However, there remain an important question: Is this world fatalistic and necessary?
Problem 2: Reformation of Usul Al-Fiqh
It is quite clear now that the fundamentalist approach is unable to grasp with the modern changes in the world. Science and technology is advanced so much that raises some challenges to the Islamic though. The Question is: how can we reform our rules for fiqh rules to produce a working shari'a laws that is suitable for modern age and at the same time preserve the originality of the aims of Islam?
Here are some articles on Jalil Al-Kalam that you may download.