Research Problems in Daqiq al-Kalam

Daqīq al-kalām brings about wider scope for search in important issues of natural philosophy. These issues are in close connection to the current problems of physics. We just have seen how this can be achieved through some examples of fundamental importance treated in chapters of part III of this book. These examples teach us how powerful are the principles of daqīq al-kalām in providing solutions for those fundamental problems. We have seen the example of utilizing the principle of re-creation in offering a solution for the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics in chapter one of part III, how the same principle along with kalām atomism and their description of discrete motion can provide a solution for the description of quantum particle trajectory in the double slit experiment. We have seen how the principle of contingency and indeterminism can provide a deeper understanding of the anthropic principle through presenting the interplay between fine tuning and the blind laws of nature, and in chapter six of part III of the book I have glimpsed on using the principle of contingency and indeterminism to seek a possible explanation for the mechanism of biological evolution and the evolution of the world in general.

In fact the new daqīq al-kalām carries great potential for offering basis for solution to many problems in natural sciences, specifically physics and biology. These solutions are now badly needed in order to open the doors for a new progress in these field of scientific quest since most of the venues in theoretical physics are now congested with unnecessary complications brought in by the mathematical approaches employed for problems taken out of their physical context. So it might not be surprising after all to seek solutions for our problems from natural philosophy.    

There are many problems to consider and here are the general guidelines for a set of primary topics that can be put on the study tables of the graduate studies or the experts in concerned fields. Researchers who deal with such problems need not to be philosophers but they need to understand the principles of daqīq al-kalām very well and to be specialized in their field of scientific studies. Studying these issues will not necessarily bring about direct solutions for the current scientific problems but may help other experts by injecting new idea and new paradigms which might enable them discover new frontiers.

In what follows I am suggesting ten problems for study along the new line of thought, these are


The concept of nonexistence and the nonexistent (the non-being) of the Muʽtazilis, has a relationship with the concept of vacuum in contemporary physics. This school of thought believed that the nonexistent is something, contrary to what the Ash'aris adopted. The Muʽtazilis hold that the nonexistent are jawāher (substances) in the vacuum but lack occupancy (taḥayyuz). This means that the nonexistent are virtual jawāher (or virtual particle. Accordingly, a number of questions can be raised: is it possible to have an agreement between this concept and the concept of the vacuum as offered by quantum field theory? Is there a useful utilization of this concept for the relativistic quantum theory of Dirac? What does it imply if we envisage the re-creation of the virtual state to be at work? Can daqīq al-kalām present clearer vision in this regard? 

Problem 2

The mutakallimūn proposed that time to be atomized, being composed of tiny units. Consequently they hypothesized the presence of a minimum duration of physical time that is indivisible. Congruently, the space was thought to be discrete and again an indivisible minimum distance is envisaged. If this is available, and in the light of the integrity of space and time can we envisage any sort of discreteness in structure spacetime? Here I don’t mean to discuss the problem from physical point of view since this topic has been so much discussed in theoretical physics as to have generated much confusion. But my question is can we find any philosophical realization within the new daqīq al-kalām that can provide us with any clue for an ouset of spacetime discreteness. Can we imagine that the re-creation process is some kind of interplay between space and time? This might well be the case as long as the spacetime is kept invariant, then this will explain the conservation laws in physics.

Problem 3

The description of the motion of quantum particles might be very inspiring indeed. Can we extend this description to discuss interactions of particles on the microscopic level and describe such interaction in terms of motion and re-creation? 


Problem 4

Another point is relevant to the range of applicability the laws of quantum mechanics. Some physicists say that the laws of quantum mechanics apply only to microscopic systems, unlike the classical mechanical laws which apply to the macroscopic systems. The advocates of this view claim that quantum phenomena can't be seen at the macroscopic level. Equations show quantum mechanics applies to all bodies and states in the universe no matter if they are microscopic or macroscopic. True we cannot see quantum effects on the macroscopic level since these are minute effects on such a scale. The proposed scheme of re-creation resolves this question. But Can we find macroscopic quantum states? How can we understand the relation between quantum coherence and the existence of macroscopic quantum states in the light of the process of continued re-creation?

Problem 5

The evidence of creation or what is called today as Intelligent Design is a supplementary paramount theme. The Intelligent Design is a recent US school which believes that the world is designed in a brilliant way in order to accommodate a conscious and intelligent life system. Some atheists claim that this trend, the intelligent design is no more than a disguising form of creationism.  Is it possible to reconsider the design argument in traditional kalām and utilized for constructing a consistent view more scientific than the intelligent design proposal? Can we use the argument form the least action principle more efficiently here?

Problem 6

In Tahāfut al-falāsifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), Abū Hamid Al-Ghazali, pointed out that the end of the world and negating its post-eternity has no religious evidence. Yet, this is contradicts what we read in Surat Al-Anbia', verse (104) which says "The day when We roll up heaven like the rolling up of the scroll of writings. As We began the first creation, We shall reproduce it. A promise (binding) on Us. We shall bring it about". Also in Surat Az-Zumar verse (67) we read similar thing talking about the folding of the Heavens. The question is how can we understand what al-Ghazālī has told and would be possible that he may have overlooked the case?